Friday, May 31, 2019

Analysis of The Unknown Citizen by W.H. Auden Essay -- The Unknown Cit

Analysis of The Unknow Citizen by W.H. AudenThe apart(p) Citizen, written by W.H. Auden during 1940, is a poemwhere the speaker, a representative of the state or government,directs a speech to the audience about a remembrance being erected for acitizen. Written in free verse, although using many couplets, thispoem is a poem that describes the life of a certain person through hisrecords and documents. This citizen is portrayed as a frequent andaverage human being who is being honoured for being normal. Auden,however, uses the fact that the state is honouring someone for beingnormal to criticise his society. By emphasizing certain well-formedconventions and the structure the author explains the true meaning ofthis poem, and the unidentified citizen.The Unknown Citizen is a poem that directs an epitaph to a commonman in the country. In honour of the monument for the citizen, aspeech is given as a tribute to his demeanor. This man is depicted as aman who obeyed the law and never did anything incorrect, and he wasknown for taking part in many government handled activities. He servedhis duty in War, worked in Fudge Motors Inc., had a Health-card, andnever caused any sort of revolt towards the state. This citizen hadan overall average life, where he was married and had five children.Auden is writing about the state erecting a monument in honour of thiscitizens doings as a great citizen in the community whom representedmany other people in the country.This poem might seem to be very(prenominal) direct and clear however, the authordoes not literally mean what he wrote. The title, The UnknownCitizen, is a reference to countries that erect a monument for theUnknown pass this is an honou... ...aditionally sound according to the government, and since the Union is sound it is not really a Union. The sense of this poem depends greatly upon the tone, because literally the poem has a completely antithetic connotation than it does if u considers the tone. The poet has a critical attitude towards this subject and it is clearly demonstrates once the lector analysis the poem.W. H. Auden is a poet who portrays his emotions and feelings through his poetry, and in this certain poem, The Unknown Citizen, Auden criticises the state. He uses allusions and capitalization to make the reader understand the actual meaning of the poem and by adding the final couplet in the poem, Auden reaches tries to get the reader to think. Auden leaves the reader hanging and makes them think is our society and government really totalitarian? Or is this how our government will be?

Thursday, May 30, 2019

Maquiladoras: Manufacturing Poverty in Mexico Essay -- Maquiladoras E

The trend toward a more globalized market has become increasingly developed in the latter half of the twentieth century. Emphasis on knowledge domain trade has become a dominant figure in almost every Nations economy. Between 1970 and 2000 world trade has experienced an increase of almost 370 percent. Concurrently, world GDP increased by 150 percent. Trade is beneficial to Nations because it allows the creation of avenues that aid in businesslike allocation of resources (Canas & Coronado). Countries can gain from trade when they specialize according to their comparative advantage. This is, when they create conditions where goods and services can be produced at a lower probability cost than in any other country. Along the same logic, countries can also make large profits by taking advantage of some other countries comparative advantage. A prime example of this is the relationship between Mexico and the United States. Mexico has a comparative advantage over a large majorit y of countries in the world in its abundance of cheap labor. Mexico also has fairly underdeveloped environmental protection and labor laws, which allows corporations more leeway in their operations. Additionally, Mexico provides incentives to foreign corporations including decreased tariffs, unrestricted leases and certain tax exemptions. As a result, corporations have less overhead costs and a greater potential for profits. In this paper I will discuss this phenomenon in several different contexts. First, I will draw on the history of Mexican labor in the United States as it undoubtedly set the stage for future labor agreements between these two nations. Second, I will discuss the Maquiladora Program which encouraged United States corporations to relocate their pl... ...ry and Statistics. http//www.solunet-infomex.com.3.The Bracero Program. http//www.farmworkers.org/bracerop.html4.Canas, the Nazarene & Coronado, Roberto. Maquiladora Industry Past Present and Fut ure. El Paso Business Frontier. Issue 2. 2002.5.Maquiladoras Sweatshops by any Other Name. http//www.globalexchange.org/countries/unitedstates/california/dayofthedead/ maquiladoras.html.6.Maquiladoras At a Glance. CorpWatch. June 30, 1999.7.LaBotz, Dan. The Maquiladorization of Mexico. The Multinational Monitor. Volume 14. publication 5. May 1993. 8.Chasnoff, Brian. Profit & Poverty Mexicos Maquiladoras. The Daily Texan. 9.Manufacturing in Mexico The Mexican In-Bond (Maquila) Program. Mexico Business Directory. 2000. http//www.mexconnect.com/business/mex2000maquiladora2.html

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

Sophocles’ Oedipus Cycle †Antigone, as a Feminist Essay -- Antigone E

Sophocles Oedipus Cycle Antigone, as a FeministThroughout history, women have always stood in the shadows of men. In many cultures, the social function of women has always been to be seen and not heard. As one of the first feminists in world literature, the character Antigone, of Sophocles Oedipus Cycle, displays fine characteristics of a great effeminate leader in order to stand up against male dominance for her religious, political, and personal beliefs. When the king denies her brother, Polynices, proper burial, Antigone goes against state law by burying him herself in order to value heavenly decree and maintain justice. In doing this, she steps out of her place as a woman in a male dominated society.In order to characterize Antigone as a feminist, it is important to study Antigones early childhood, which displays the origins of the characteristics found in her that make her a feminist. In Oedipus of Colonus, Sophocles illustrates these qualities that Antigone possesses. Durin g the first xx years of her life, Antigone spends her time secluded from society with her blind, exiled father, Oedipus. Sophocles sums up her childhood in the following soliloquy by OedipusSince her childhood ended and her body gained its power, has wandered ever with me, an sr. mans governess often in the wild forest without shoes, and hungry, beaten by many rains tired by the sun yet she rejected the saintly life of home so that her father should have sustenance (Fitts 104). Because she is secluded, Antigone never has to take her place in society as a woman. Without a female role model to show her how a woman is supposed to act, there is no one to raise her as a woman. She spends her days taking business organization of her blind father and leading him. Sh... ...Creon, when she kills herself causing Creon to lose. Creon at this point has caved in by deciding to bury Polynices and free Antigone, but it is too late. She dies an honorable death for future feminists.Since Sopho cles wrote Antigone, there have been thousands of literary works about feminists and their movement to let their voices be heard over men. Through her strong will and bravery, Antigone do her political, religious, and personal beliefs seen. She died in order to win against men even when no one else would stand up to male dominance. For these reasons, Antigone is a prime example of a great feminist in world literature.Works Cited Fitts, Dudley and Robert Fitzgerald. The Oedipus Cycle. Trans. Sophocles. Florida Harcourt Brace & Company, 1977.Sophocles. Antigone. Literature and the Writing Process 5th ed. New Jersey Prentice Hall. 1999.

What Dreams May Come Essay -- Film Movies Review Life After Death Essa

What Dreams May ComeThe movie What Dreams May Come gives a rather positive view on the later emotional state. I think most of the ideas and views shown in the film are related to many of societys main beliefs pertaining to death and the afterwardlife, precisely the views are leftover broad enough so they can relate to any specific religion. Personally, I have no concrete belief concerning the afterlife, or whether or not if there even is life after death, but I can see why many deal would agree with many of the films perspectives. The movie is shown through Robin Williamss character, Chris Nielson whos premier(prenominal) individualized encounter with death is when his two children, Marie and Ian both die in a car accident. Four years later he dies himself after being produce by a car. After the accident, he sees himself on the ground from an outside perspective. The next thing he knows, he is able to see himself lying in a hospital bed, and at the same time there is a very g entle go talking to him asking him if he understands the things happening to him, but at this point Chris is still very confused. In an instant, Chris is at his own funeral where he begins to see his physical body appearing around him. According to the voice means he is finally understanding that he has passed on. He then wanders his house, and is reluctant to leave his distraught wife Annie. Next, a blurry figure appears, talk with the same gentle voice. The figure comforts him and tells him it is time to leave and basically helps him grasp his death and travel to the next world. Afterwards, Chris is willing to leave, and he suddenly finds himself footrace down a dark tunnel towards a light, and then he appears in a colorful world resembling one of his wifes paintings of where their dream house is sibylline to be. Here, he is reunited with his dog who had died earlier in the movie. Also, the blurry figure becomes clear and turns out to be his old doctor friend Albert, who later turns out to be Chris?s son Ian just masking himself in the physical body of Albert. This form is chosen by his son because the doctor was one of the only people Chris had ever listened to while he was alive. Albert(Ian) basically helps him understand that he is dead and that people have a soul or an identity that lives on after the physical body has passed. He learns that there is a God, and he learns of this newfangled realm, and how everyth... ...y of your significant life experiences is constantly detectable throughout the entire film. Mainly after Chris goes to his version of heaven, and also when he sees his daughter and she has her heaven based on a toy model she had in her physical life. Another example is when she tells him her new physical appearance is based on what he had said when they were both alive. Overall, I thought this movie was pretty entertaining, especially with all the special effects. I even think the ideas about the afterlife are pretty idealistic, but I see no solid reason to believe any of it. every part of this movie could be possible, because I(like everyone else) do not know for sure what happens after we die. However, if there is one part I can find believable, it is the first half. The part when Robin Williams first dies up to when he travels through the tunnel, because it relates to so many peoples? near death experiences. I still think this movie left too many questions, but I would like the afterlife to be like what the movie portrayed, because I don?t plan on cleanup spot myself anytime soon, and it would be nice to know that I am going to still exist after I die and be reunited with my family.

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Rodriguez and Mexico :: essays research papers

Rodriguez characterizes Mexico as a country with a culture of tragedy and America as a country with a culture of comedy. However, America is comedic in the Greek sense-in the sense that America is not comedic at all. Rodriguez feels that Mexico, in existence the place of tragedy, is better off. America, on the other hand, has to flavor the burden of optimism, and the subsequent let-downs. Thus, in a sense, he characterizes them in ways that oppose what he truly thinks of them. Mexico is described as tragic-those who are of Mexican line of descent are often very traditional in thought. Rodriguezs father held the traditional beliefs that old men are wise, that life is disheartening, and near ones death is the point where one must look back on their life. However, he also feels that Mexico is a happier place, with sweeter children and more lavish funerals. Perhaps he views Mexico as the tragic place because it represents a lost heritage to him. He, who in his middle age, finds himse lf agreeing with the Mexican ideals, nevertheless finds himself affected by living in America. Instead of being raised with the ideas of Mexican culture, he was raised with Protestant optimism characteristic of California. He was forced to abandon the way of life of his ancestors, even if only partially. America-more specifically, California, conquered the Mexican ways, and in so doing, lost the opportunity to reconcile the Catholic South and the Protestant North. Thus, Mexico emerged as the tragic hero and California as the laughing victor. California is comedic because it is a place where it is possible to start anew, to defy the traditional. Rodriguez views California as a reconciliation between comedy and tragedy. It is both the place where many Mexicans immigrated to and the place where Americans conk to escape the constraints of society. Mexicans hoped to experience the comedy of California-where it is possible to change your sex, divorce, and become famous. Even Rodriguezs p arents moved to California, and live in a house with many telephones and televisions.

Rodriguez and Mexico :: essays research papers

Rodriguez characterizes Mexico as a country with a culture of disaster and America as a country with a culture of japery. However, America is comedic in the Greek sense-in the sense that America is not comedic at all. Rodriguez feels that Mexico, in macrocosm the place of tragedy, is better off. America, on the other hand, has to face the burden of optimism, and the subsequent let-downs. Thus, in a sense, he characterizes them in delegacys that oppose what he real thinks of them. Mexico is described as tragic-those who are of Mexican descent are often very traditional in thought. Rodriguezs father held the traditional beliefs that old hands are wise, that life is disheartening, and near ones death is the point where one must look back on their life. However, he also feels that Mexico is a happier place, with sweeter children and more lavish funerals. Perhaps he views Mexico as the tragic place because it represents a lost heritage to him. He, who in his middle age, finds himsel f agreeing with the Mexican ideals, nevertheless finds himself change by living in America. Instead of being raised with the ideas of Mexican culture, he was raised with Protestant optimism characteristic of California. He was forced to abandon the way of life of his ancestors, even if only partially. America-more specifically, California, conquered the Mexican ways, and in so doing, lost the opportunity to reconcile the Catholic South and the Protestant North. Thus, Mexico emerged as the tragic bomber and California as the laughing victor. California is comedic because it is a place where it is possible to start anew, to defy the traditional. Rodriguez views California as a reconciliation between comedy and tragedy. It is both the place where many Mexicans immigrated to and the place where Americans move to escape the constraints of society. Mexicans hoped to experience the comedy of California-where it is possible to change your sex, divorce, and become famous. Even Rodriguezs p arents moved to California, and persist in a house with many telephones and televisions.

Monday, May 27, 2019

Examine the causes of urban sprawl and assess the effectiveness of strategies to contain it

Urban sprawl is one of the key planning issues today. It consists of low density settlement extending beyond the boundaries of built up areas. Also it involves high dependence on private automobiles and is often the result of poorly planned or unplanned victimization. While urban sprawl is colligate to population emersion, it is also caused by falling household sizes, increased demand for low density living, lower land prices in peripheral areas and a longing to escape from cities because of crime and pollution.There are number of forms of urban sprawl that brook take place, the three main patterns are low density sprawl, palm tree sprawl and leap frog development. Each type of sprawl is often caused by the same core problems, all of which resulting in consequential effects. There are numerous reasons as to why urban sprawl occurs, however a significant point when it became apparent was after World War 2. At this fourth dimension citizenry started moving from the cities to t he countryside. Living in suburbia signified a better, healthier lifestyle.The land in the areas people were moving to was cheap and there was spile of it, and brass incentives and subsidies helped families realize their dream of a better life. As times have moved on the issues of urban sprawl have continued, caused by a variety of factors. To begin with the increasing demand for housing plays a large part in urban sprawl, with more people buying houses and living with few people, houses are in demand more than ever. This coupled with the quality of the inner city environment causes people to want to move kayoed of the inner city into suburban areas, hence urban sprawl.A further cause for urban sprawl is the demand for low density housing, people have increasing wants for higher(prenominal) living standards and want to get as much as they can for their money, therefore this can be achieved more easily by moving out of the densely populated city centres to suburban areas where they can have more space and land. Additionally the demographic structure and household changes may impact upon urban sprawl. Changes in age structure, social structure of the population and household type and structure may all affect location preferences of households.Lastly, lifestyle and behaviour can have a significant effect on urban sprawl. Changes in lifestyle, for instance increases in leisure time and disposable incomes may lead to people to want to live in an environment to suit this type of lifestyle and often suburban areas can meet these needs. Although there are several causes that countenance urban sprawl there are a number of strategies that have been implemented in order to try and contain it. The solutions can be ground on three main approaches.Firstly, designating areas where no development is allowed, secondly channeling urban growth to selected towns and cities and lastly increasing urban residential densities and attracting residents back to the city. One po licy that can be implemented is urban growth boundaries or green belts. This aims to restrict the physical sprawl. This is illustrated by Portland operating theater in the USA where an urban growth boundary surrounds Portland and twenty three nearby small settlements. The green belt protects the attractive rural landscapes of the Willamette Valley and helps invigorate the inner city.Portland managed to accommodate a 0% growth in population by increasing the built up area by only 2 % between 1970 and 2000. However, while Portland has been successful in using this strategy so far, the city is begging to run out of land. Consequently, house prices are rising rapidly, 15. 6% between 193 and 1996 compared with 1. 8 % for the whole country. In order to find affordable housing people are being forced to move further away to the adjacent city of Vancouver. Another system which has been used in Minneapolis is revitalization of the city centre.This aims to attract people back to the city by providing good quality services and making them convenient and prospering to use. In turn relieving pressures on suburban areas and thus decreasing urban sprawl. Switching direct investment from intercity highways to city transport schemes is another way in which urban sprawl can be minimized. By doing this cities can be made more attractive and manageable for people to access and use. The US government rejected plans for a highway near Salt Lake City in order to try and put more financial support into city transport schemes.New towns are another scheme implemented in a number of areas in order to tackle urban growth and manage urban sprawl. In Cairo to try and alleviate urban sprawl, protect scarce farmland and provide better living conditions for the residents of the cities overcrowded districts, the Egyptian government began planning a series of new settlements around Cairo in the 1970s. Various settlements were developed, located in five growth corridors while Cairo itself wa s surrounded by a ring road o prevent outward expansion.Although some of the settlements were successful at attracting businesses, they were less triumphant at gaining residents. The majority of workers continued to live in Cairo and commute to the New Towns. In this case the success was variable and proved ineffective as the towns diminished due to water shortages and poor humans transport. Lastly, an alternative to urban sprawl is the greater use of land and buildings in existing built-up areas, this can take two forms, conversion of unused buildings into new homes or development on Brownfield land.Brownfield land consists of areas previously used for industry or commercial activity which are now derelict or unused. England has over 57000 ha of previously developed and unused land in cities. In Glasgow, for example, 12 % of land is classified as derelict. Although this appears to be a viable solution to urban sprawl there are problems that occur. Brownfield sites have many limita tions for planes and developers and are often contaminated with industrial chemicals or waste from factories and power stations.An example of a Brownfield development is Barking Reach on the banks of the River Thames in inner London. In order to make this site suitable for development of houses, offices and schools, developers had to bury overhead power cables, remove modify from three power stations, and reclaim marshland by raising the ground level. Overall, although there are many causes that result in urban sprawl there appear to be many solutions available in order to contain or even solve the issue. However, the effectiveness of these solutions is variable.For instance although in the short-term Portland, Oregon has been effective it is now having to deal with a number of consequential issues which makes the long-term effectiveness of the project to be questionable. As for Cairo, it is evident that the initial plans and ideas were sufficient entirely the financial support an d economic stability were not there in order to make the development successful. For urban sprawl to be effectively managed or even solved a combination of suitable strategies need to be planed, implemented and contained in order for it to be sustained and therefore a success.

Sunday, May 26, 2019

Price Mechanism

The market system is the mechanism for allocating scarce resources and thitherby supporting a positive investment climate. The problem of scarcity is common in all economic structures. The economic system of a particular country is the panache in which its people, businesses and government make choices. Demand is the amount of a product exhaustrs be willing and able to purchase at any given time. However, issue is the amount of a product that is available at any given time. The following diagram shows the relationship that look at has with supplyThe above diagram shows that where the demand and supply intersects, indicates the quantity which suppliers wish to market equals the quantity which buyers are willing to take. There are many factors that have determined the general increase in global food outlays over the last four years. One factor is in late 2006 the unseasonable droughts in many grain-producing countries. The top three wheat producers in the world are, China, India , and the United States respectively. The consequences of drought include diminished crop growth, and the ability to rare livestock.Also, it causes erosion, which further affects plantations and soil consistency. Without water there can be no irrigation. Irrigation is an artificial application of water to the soil for assisting of the proper, healthy growth of crops. Wildfires are also caused by droughts because of the lack of moisture in the air they consume all agriculture once formed. Biofuels, a fuel substitute that is derived not from fossil fuels but from biological material maybe another cause of raise food prices. Bio fuels are commonly used in place of gas to power vehicles, to heat houses and even to cook on your stove.The factor that affects the price of crops here is that Biofuels use crops high in sugar and starch, then fermentation of these crops causes the it to produce ethanol. Ethanol is the substance, which is used for power. So as our world is becoming more eco chummy and aware, our food prices will rise. Oil prices over the last four years have been steadily rising, causing food transport and other agriculture associate machinery and treatments to rise also. From the mid 1980s to September 2003, the inflation-adjusted price of a gun barrel of crude oil on NYMEX (New York Mercantile Exchange) was on average under US$25/barrel.Then in 2003 it finally rose to US$30/barrel and gradually went up to US$60/barrel in 2005, and skyrocketed to US$147/barrel in 2008. These drastic increases in oil prices have taken their toll on food prices over the past four years. Wheat and grain are said to be relatively inelastic, meaning there is not much range for substituting. So where there is a large change in price there is little or no change in the quantity demanded of that particular good. The elasticity of a product can be measured by the following formula PED = % change in Quantity Demanded of product change in price of that product World population growth is the latest in factors to affect food prices. The world population has grown from 1. 6 billion in 1900 to an estimated 6. 6 billion today. The increase in population size has in the first place been pointed to the developed countries where food prices are subsidized. In these countries, the government subsidize crops, and absorb the extra cost of food so the cost does not affect the consumer. So in reality, the developing and the third world countries are the only ones to suffer from our current food shortage.

Saturday, May 25, 2019

One child policy of China Essay

The issue of commonwealth growth has been one of the major problems faced by world all oer past vitamin C. The exponential population growth, popularly termed as population explosion, has led to unprecedented rise in human population, which has numerically grown by over 4 billion to 6 billion in the last hundred years itself.This enormous growth in human tote ups has spawned social and frugalal problems of severe complexity, especially considering the fact that most of this growth has happened in economically underdeveloped countries of Asian and African region, particularly India and mainland China, both of whom have seen their population maturement past a billion countersink. Supporting such huge frame of ever rising population is indeed a challenge for any country, as natural resources threaten to run short, and economic privations become a general norm.Under such circumstances, population control becomes a necessary establishment objective, the validity, sizeableness a nd meaningfulness of which are undisputable from environmental, economic and social angels. However, population control policies have always generated controversies from humanitarian and ethical viewpoints, the most noted example of them being the population control policy of Peoples Republic of China that re unforgivings pits to having just one child (Xue, 1996).Although highly effective under Chinas strict state policies, it is indeed an extreme measure that has invited criticism from all over the world because for its forceful rather than coercive implications. Issues involved As stated earlier, undisciplined rise in population is indeed an invitation to complex and unmanageable problems that no nation state can handle irrespective of its size and resources. However, the issues involved with Chinas one child policy are very complicated and affect some basic concepts of right to life and existenceChina launched its offensive family planning scheme in mid of 1970s when suddenly its policy makers realized the dangers of a rapidly growing population that had reached one billion mark by 1980s (Smith, 1991). In the previous two decades the government had failed to take in cognizance of growing population due to stability and improvement economic conditions, availability of medical facilities, medicines and drop in child mortality.More ominously, as demographers realized, the rapid growth of population in previous decades implied that by 1980 much than one-half the population was approaching marriage age, which meant that even under decreasing fertility rate, the Chinese population would reach 1. 4 billion by end of the century (White, 2003). This realization launched Chinese policy makers and government in a frenetic attempt to implement some of the strictest population measures that included a one-child policy per couple to contain the population under 1. 2 billion (Richards, 1996).This draconian measure was explained and justified from various social and ec onomical angels, one of which was arguable shortage of cultivatable land (Smith, 1991). As government argued, the cultivable land per person had come down from . 20 hectare in 1949 to . 10 hectare in 1980 due to almost manifold of population in the same period and hence the ensuing crisis demanded critical measures (ibid). Moreover the state infrastructure and its capacity to support such large population, erect adequate medical and educational facilities and ensure jobs for it would become increasingly difficult.As claimed by supporters of the one child policy, the policy was merely concerned with providing economic incentives and preferential treatment to families with one child such as paid pregnancy leave, lucrative salary bonus, and state sponsored or free educational and medical facilities, facilities that families with more(prenominal) than one child lack. Further disincentives occasiond for larger families include financial penalty on birth of second and terzetto child that are respectively 20 and 30 percent of the annual income of the family (Richards, 1996).The policy was tooth and nail opposed by a large proportion of Chinese people, and especially by those in coarse areas but government decided to continue with it seeing its possible benefit in controlling the population question. One of the main problems disturbing Chinese leading was Chinas low GNP and very simple calculations showed them that to increase GNP in the longer run, they required to reduce or contain the number of people, which was the easy way against the hard route that involved working towards increasing the economic output (Feng, 1996).Containing population growth was presented was the single panacea that could increase per capita income, armed service achieve modernization plans, give impetus to the economy and solve the problem of additional resource requirements that rising population presented (Feng, 1996). The one child policy is considered formally successful and in strumental in significantly reducing birth rates, fertility rates, growth rates and death rates and its expected that soon the population would began to pedigree at a faster rate as children born after the implementation of the policy would have less desire to have a family of more than one child (Richards).Also to wash off its hand from the negative effect of the policy, such as increased number of female feticide, and suicides among Chinese females, the government insistently attributed them to backward and obsolete Chinese culture and customs. Conclusion Despite the claims of the supporters and the official government, it cannot be denied that the very concept of the one child policy involves conspicuous violations of the rights to live, procreate and live socially.In its zeal to implement the policy, Chinese authorities permitted such extreme measures as forcible abortions and sterilization, which were openly illegal in all humanitarian statute (Xue and Xiaokang, 1996). By ma king childbearing an illegal act, the government forcibly tried to change the demographic dynamics with dangerous social consequences that threatens to create a mundane and homogenous society bereft of any relation except parents and in-laws. Also the one child policy triggered a large number of female-infanticide that threatened to dangerously alter male-female sex ratio in China.Of course the most cruel fate was reserved for those who were born outside this policy, that is the second and third child of the family who were denied any state support and facility in a perfectly state controlled society. In the wake of an economically prospering and comparatively change China, its the call of the hour for Chinese government to finally abandon and bury its anti-people one child policy and work on creation of a more informed society.

Friday, May 24, 2019

Effectiveness Of Leadership At Mcdonalds Management Essay Essay

I had the opportunity of triming at a McDonalds chain of restaurants after completion of my undergraduate studies. I was able to observe the role played by members of a police squad, their squad work and leadershiphip of the Manager of the restaurant. I would like to analyse the leadership styles practiced, pronounce the effectiveness of leadership at McDonalds restaurant and make recommendations indicating how leadership and team work eject go hand in hand to break the performance of the organisation. The first McDonalds opened its doors to customers in the UK in 1974.Currently, over 2. 5 million battalion in the UK place their trust in McDonald, expecting that the transnational would provide them with food of a high standard, quick service and value for m championy. Models and theories that will be discussed in the later portions of this essay be Adairs lead Model and Maslows theory of hierarchy which will be applied to McDonalds. Leadership styles such as coercive, de mocratic and smooth-tongued be also discussed to honour out which of the three is the ideal ride for McDonalds.A team is a collection of several(prenominal)s who atomic number 18 interdependent in their tasks, who share responsibility for outcomes, who see themselves and who are seen by others as an intact social entity embedded in one or more larger social systems (for example, business unit or the corporation), and who get out their relationships across organisational boundaries (Susan Cohen and Diane Bailey, 1997). A team is defined as a small number of people, with a set of performance goals, who beget a commitment to a common purpose and an approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable (Katzenbach & Smith 1993).There are several factors that influence the success of a team. Team members essential cast off the required skills and attitudes and moldiness create an ambience in which everyone can work with devotion. There should be transparency within the team which is possible if on that point is effective system of communication between all members. All members of the team must have set responsibilities and must be aware of what is expected from them. In this way all members of the team will be accountable.All members must have harmonising skills and must coordinate among themselves to eliminate any uncertainties or reservations. Members of a team must genuinely appreciate the efforts of workfellow members. An effective leader is one who does the right things. Leaders can effectively develop and lead teams if they have the dexterity to create and communicate a vision what the organization should be. They should have the ability to communicate with and come upon the support of all team members.They should have the perseverance to dubiousness in the desired direction under bad conditions and create the suitable culture to obtain the needed results. Levine, R. (2000) is of the opinion that leaders need to focus on moving people a nd organisations forward by increasing the competency of staff and the co-operation of teams in arrangement to improve the organisation. Leadership is related to motivation, interpersonal behaviour and the care for of communication. Leadership is important in attempting to reduce employee dissatisfaction (Crow M. 995).The responsibilities of the Restaurant Manager or the team leader at McDonalds are to set targets, plan budgets, abide by and throw stock, recruit, train and motivate a team, create and drive marketing campaigns and build and foster customer relations. Leaders ate McDonalds restaurants do not lay down any fixed rules on how quickly individuals of a team can progress. Opportunities are recalln to team members to gravel film directors if they perform well. For this to happen, the ring member must contribute to the success of the team.The management style adopted by team leaders at McDonalds is to create outlets which are mutation places to work. This is called t eam-building. Leaders at McDonalds foster accountability and understand the social responsibility culture and incorporate these activities into their businesses. In fact the team leaders have all the characteristics that were used by Stogdill (1950) to define leadership.The characteristic include traits, behaviour, influence, interaction patterns, role relationships and occupation of an administrative position articulating visions (e. g.Bill Gates), embodying values and creating environment for the things that can be accomplished entities that perform one or more acts of leading the ability to affect human behaviour so as to accomplish a mission and Influencing a group of people to move towards its goal setting or goal achievement. (Stogdill, 1950) The McDonalds Model is that of Adairs Model which is called action-centred leadership. This is a constructive model according to which the leader inspires others by their own enthusiasm, commitment and the ability to communicate enthusias m to people (Adair, 1993).Teams were developed by team leaders so that a common task could be accomplished. Adair (1993) identifies three different approaches to leadership which can be called leadership functions (1) accomplishing the task, (2) maintaining the team and (3) meeting the individual needs of the team members. Adair believes that leaders are not born but emerge from situations. The leader who emerges can adopt any style of leadership that warrants the situation. harmonise to Adair a leader is one who has certain innate characteristics which are required to perform his/her role. A leader according to him must have personality and character. Adair quotes Harold Macmillian, that a man who trusts nobody is inclined(predicate) to be the kind of man that nobody trusts. His leader must have integrity, a wholeness and a moral sense. According to Adair, the three functions of meeting the demands of the task, maintaining the team and meeting the needs of individual team members must be kept in balance and none of them should be neglected.The team leader areas of responsibility must include qualities and competencies such as (a) to behave with the highest level of authenticity and integrity by building a trusting relationship with all team members (b) to be committed fully to the development of the team (c) to be open and communicate, but must practice good listening skills (d) be willing to share perceptions, assumptions and views openly with team members and (e) to allow team members to work independently but in a self-organised manner.Team leaders must take time required to do the work and support teams efforts and also reflect on its actions. They must maintain and practice accountability and at the same time have a good working relationship with the team members. They should always be ready to monitor and evaluate how the team functions. They should clearly state the purpose of work without being ambiguous or complex. They must try to experiment and s hare experiences without blame. They should also provide coaching and mentoring support to the team (Barry Stevenson, 2004).The organizational structure of McDonalds Corporation is centralised but that of its retail outlets is different. In McDonalds outlets the employees work as a team to ensure that customers requirements are taken care of in a short period of time. Besides the manager the rest are all attendants who take orders and deliver as fast as they can. There is discrepancy of labour among members of the organisation, and the co-ordination of their activities are directed towards the goals and objectives of the organisation.Structure is the pattern of relationships among positions in the organisation and among members of the organisation. Structure makes possible the application of the process of management and creates a framework of order and command through which the activities of the organisation can be planned, organised, directed and controlled. Structure defines tas ks and responsibilities, work roles and relationships, and channels of communication (Mullins and Laurie. J, 2008). At McDonalds the span of control of the manager is narrow-minded.The span of control refers to the number of subordinates working under the supervisor. So if there are five subordinates working under the supervisor or manager, the span of control is five. If the span of control is narrow there are certain advantages (Jenkins and Tessa, 2000). One of the merits is that there is tight control over subordinates and the manager is able to closely pull off the daily operations resulting in better co-ordination. Managers have time to think and plan and they are not burdened with too many problems.A narrow span of control reduces delegation and managers are able to do more work. On the contrary, a flat organisation implies a wide span of control. Theorists are of the opinion that tall organisation structures are inefficient, despite the advantage of a narrow span of control (Robbins, Stephen P, 2007). One can learn to use leadership approaches to develop high-performing teams and individuals at McDonalds. Team leaders were aware of the importance of team building and used suitable tools and techniques to help teams reach their full potential.McDonalds Crew Members are obligated for customer service, food preparation and cleanliness and hygiene. Crew members will be asked to work in any of these areas depending on the individuals preferences. I worked as a Customer Service Crew member and my job entailed taking orders and delivering meals to customers at the counter. I learnt to be courteous and polite as I was responsible for maintaining high levels of customer satisfaction. The responsibility of the Food Preparation Crew Members was to prepare and cook McDonalds menu.The teams are self managed and all team or faction member works with team spirit. There is a sense of respect for each other. However it can be said that most confederacy members do no t understand the organisation strategy as they do not have access to this information. The communication between crew members is informal which enables every individual to maintain good harmony within retail outlets. The crew members at McDonalds are committed because their needs are met by the team leadership. The leadership has developed an ideal and committed team which can be easily motivated.A committed and motivated team is always triple-crown. Larson and LaFasto (1989) studied to understand the characteristics of successful teams and found that all the highly effective teams always had the characteristics such as a clear, elevating goal, a result-driven structure, competent team members, unified commitment, a collaborative climate, standards of duty external support and recognition as well as principled leadership (Larson and LaFasto, 1989). From this finding it is evident that effective teamwork has a strong relationship with motivation.According to Maslows theory the hie rarchy of human needs are classified into five levels. This theory advocates that the higher level needs of an individual will become motivating factors only when the lower level ones are satisfied. The five levels starting from the lowest hierarchy to the highest level, are Physiological At McDonalds the motivating factors of the crew members are salary, over time, daily lunch/meal and transportation facilities. Safety The next important factor is safety which includes elements such as job security, medical examination insurance and sick leave.Social There is very good interaction among crew members and customers. This has resulted in excellent teamwork. Self-esteem Crew members are motivated as the team leader/manager has full confidence in their abilities. They have reputation because of the McDonalds brand equity. They are recognised and appreciated by fellow colleagues, subordinates, and supervisors. Self-actualization The crew member reach their full potential when all h is needs are taken care off (Maslow, 1987). The disadvantage that I observed was that subordinates are unable to make any decision.They have to always obey and listen to the orders of the manager. However the crew members (team members) had flexible schedules. There were team members from various parts of the innovation working together. They had different backgrounds and different interests and all worked together to make an ideal work force. In fact there was diversity. I would like to now give a detailed account of my observations on leadership styles and its impact on teamwork in McDonalds restaurants. The leadership style practised in McDonalds restaurants is magisterial and therefore crew members are not involved in any decision reservation.It is also a fact that suggestions from crew members are not welcomed as most of them are new. Crew members are young and work in these restaurants during summer vacations and therefore cannot offer ideas to the leader. Crew members are young and therefore motivated if they are paid wages on time and given extra benefits such as lunch and transportation. This motivates the crew to work in spite of the autocratic leadership. Autocratic style of leadership doesnt fulfil the self esteem requirements reflected in Maslows hierarchy.However at McDonalds crew members get self respect and also respect each other. McDonalds will not adopt another style of leadership as the management fears that a coaxing or democratic style will not deliver the goods, viz. , delivering quality food on time to its customers. I would like to compare persuasive and democratic styles of leadership with that of autocratic leadership before arriving at a conclusion which one of the three styles will ideally suit McDonalds and at the same time have an impact on team work.Persuasion is one of the requisites of all leaders by which act they can move people toward a new situation. Persuasion does not include rational arguments. A leader can use pers uasion as a tactic to gain the support of diverse groups of people using basic human emotions. It is normal that persuasive strategies may provoke team members and some of them may oppose ideas or suggestions. The democratic leadership style or participative style encourages employees to be a part of the decision making allowing more participation of teams in the decision making process.

Thursday, May 23, 2019

Affirmative Action

approbatory pull through is a platform that was established by the government as a set of laws and policies for keeping distinction against separates. It was for the purpose of offering equal opportunities for involution, education, and business.Several of our formal presidents has signed executive orders that was meant for entirely hiring to be equal regard little of race, color, or national origin with entirely government contractors and the other(prenominal) specific onlyy for associations which received federal contracts and subcontracts eliminating discrimination at bottom the workforce towards individuals centered on their race, color, religion, and national origin.Later the optimistic meet was limited to include no discriminating against ones sexuality. affirmatory effect also established preferential handling for minorities and women in the hiring process and the chance to receive a higher(prenominal) education. approving proceeding holds head-to-head empl oyers accountable as well.During the Civil Rights movement, affirmation work was a tool that proposed opportunities for women and minorities and to provide equality for them.There be storied changes in how colleges recruit and enroll students, housing and also how using public transportation where now blacks can sit anywhere since Rosa Parks. Since favourable activeness was primarily intended on improving chances for African the Statesns in employment and education, but there is still a low percentage of improvement that is why an executive order was signed and it required all government and private industry jobs to increase the number of women, disable individuals and minorities to either receive employment or to have the ability to gain an education or have additional training for work farmment.There are numerous organization that uses favourable do and equal employment prospect policies within their business structure there is still a controversy today surrounding these i ssues. Are the equal employment opportunity and affirmatory action policies have the same meaning? Lets talk about equal employment opportunity first, the definition is that it bans all types of discrimination.This means that no matter the race, or gender everyone has the same chance of obtaining and amazeting promotions as well as training within the workforce. Whereas, approbative action focus on past discrimination acts which were meant to give women, disabled individuals, and the minorities an equal footing in gaining employment and a higher education.It was to create equality between the workers and employers however it has caused additional adversity in the workforce.Because many mootd that jobs held by whites were macrocosm jeopardized. Has affirmative action been consistently and effectively used to create a more robust and juicy workforce? I would say yes affirmative action has made it possible for many to see and earn their desired goals such as their life dreams.I feel that there are still many obstacles but if one applies themselves there are no limitations. Barak Obama was our nations first black President and there are many who hold prominent leadership roles that also includes women. Recently in the news, it was announced that the FBI, for the first time in history that there may be a woman heading this de lead offment.Though affirmative action has come along way there are those who still discriminate and dont offer equal chances for others to succeed.Affirmative action has allowed the workforce to become more diverse in races, genders, and cultures. We must remember that the affirmative action is non about letting minorities to get into college or to get a job, but its about giving strung-out individuals no matter their race a chance that they may non get otherwise.In oddment has affirmative action been consistently and effectively used to create a more robust and productive workforce? I would say yes it has worked extremely well. I hope to see it continue because there are many more who could benefit from this program.Affirmative ActionAn action or policy favoring those who tend to bear from discrimination, especially in relation to employment or education affirmative action, also commonly referred to as the paradox absolute discrimination. 1 Affirmative action was designed as a temporary measure to insure a leveled playing ambit for all Americans specifically minorities and women. The affirmative action measure was created to be a catalyst in ending racial and gender discrimination in the work berth and was to be retracted one time the presumable playing field was leveled.However, through mingled flaws and unmindfulcomings in the policy, it grew into a form of reverse discrimination where individuals that were well qualified for positions were turned down in lieu of minorities. When it was created, the affirmative action policy was a necessary step in insuring equality for all, but twenty-first century America has many restrictions and guidelines to prevent employers from discriminating against someone ground on their race, gender, religion and national origin, proving affirmative action to be irrelevant.The essayist chose this topic because of her interest in the diversity of Americas current workforce. aft(prenominal) various courses in economics as well as a course on public policy she became interest in programs designed to enhance social welfare in the United States of America. Also with growing concerns of immigration and the dwindling of whites as a majority in the United States, the topic of changes in the American workforce are sure to arise. The idea of affirmative action has drawn many supporting and opposing views since President John F.Kennedy first introduced it 1961 with the decision maker Order number 10925. The order commanded all federal contractors (the public sector) to take affirmative action to ensure that applicants are enured equally without regard to race, color, religion, sex or national origin. 2 As years went on, the progressive Civil Rights movement evolved the idea of affirmative action and called for it to savvy all public and private sectors in the United States.Affirmative action had many supporters including the Equal use of goods and services Opportunity Commission that was created to insure equal opportunity in the workplace for all Americans. The idea of positive discrimination was rejected in the 1978 landmark court case Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, where the United States Supreme court of law shaped that race could not be used as an admission standard to a university and disadvantaged nonage students were not permitted to have admission muscae volitantes reserved for them. Supporters of affirmative action believe that aiding those who have been historically disadvantage will insure the end of the cycle of poverty and call for a reassert wealth distribution throughout the United States. I t is statically proven that on average, minorities are less wealthy than whites.4 Statistics also prove that individuals in low-income households are less desirely to receive a college education therefore making them clean for most jobs in Americas current workforce. This cycle continues as these unqualified workers who were not able to get high paying jobs have children who are subsequently born into low-income households. In order for this cycle to discontinue, a policy should be hurtle in place that will provide them an advantage over the wealthy white job seekers the affirmative action policy provides this advantage. Sacrificing the well being of white males for a short period of time in order to catapult minorities and women into becoming qualified employees is a belief that many supporters of affirmative action hope for.Although the affirmative action policy was meant to be a temporary aid, a decade after it was created it morphed into a hypocritical attempt to fix a soluti on. College students from St. Norbert College, believe that its really justifying racialism by its own actions. Its policies totally judge people solely on skin color and gender. That is discrimination in itself. 6 Those in opposition of affirmative action believe that it is not pleasure ground to discriminate against someone that has worked hard to become qualified for a job position.They believe that other programs such as scholarships and extra tutoring programs for the underprivileged are better solutions to solving inequality in the workplace. Once minorities become equally educated and bring in skills for jobs in todays workforce, they will inherently level the playing field on their own. The issue of affirmative action has acquired many praises and oppositions. From when it was enacted over lambert years ago, it has transformed into a controversial subject. Although this topic was more relevant during the period of the Civil Rights Movement, it has recently gained momentum with the growing minority population.Affirmative ActionAffirmative action is a practice that is intended to advertize opportunities for the protected class which includes minorities, woman, and people with disabilities or any disadvantaged crowd for that matter. With affirmative action in place people of this protected class are given an even playing field in terms of hiring, promotion, as well as compensation. Historically, affirmative action is only known to have protected African Americans and woman however that is not the case. Affirmative action protects a variety of people and without this edict many people included in this protected class would be unfairly discriminated against.There are many reasons why affirmative action should continue to be a break away of workplace such as Fosters diversity. Educates our workforce on diversity. Equips employees to gain their highest theatrical role to the mission. Challenges employees to make their maximum contribution to the miss ion. Encourages employees to offer differing views and suggestions toward achieving organizational goals. reckon and appreciates individual differences. Provides equitable treatment and opportunities. Creates and maintains an inclusive approach to all systems, policies, and practices (i. . , promotions, performance ratings, awards, training, assignments, and access to services). Facilitates culture change to support wider diversity. batch who are opposed to affirmative action often argue that it gives an unfair advantage to any member of this protected class however that is far from the case. Affirmative action programs do not give racial preferences nor create quotas. In fact affirmative action programs are flexible therefore creating a countenance selection process in the hiring aspect of the workplace.Although not in the workplace, an example of a flexible affirmative action program was seen at Ohio State University where they adoptive the 10 percent rule. This rule admits stu dents who are in the top 10% of their high school graduating class. Doing so allows colleges to take minorities who excel in marginal urban schools. This is a very legal way in ensuring minorities an even playing field (Campus that Looks like America). Because of the effectiveness of affirmative action other statues have been put into place to ensure that other members of this protected class are not getting discriminated against such as the Rehabilitation Act.The Rehabilitation Act of 1973, which makes it unlawful for trusted employers to discriminate against a qualified individual exclusively by reason of her or his disability. The Rehabilitation Act does not specifically address medical inquiries, although it provides that the juridic standards used to determine whether an employer has unlawfully discriminated shall be the standards applied under the ADA. This is merely one of many statutes that were created as a part of affirmative action to promote equal employment.Clearly, w ith all of the mandates that were branched off of affirmative action the need for this program in the workplace is vital. Affirmative action promotes diversity which is known to be a vital part of any companys success. Many companies even the U. S Government pride their selves on diversity and use various affirmative action programs to achieve such a company culture. For example the U. S. count Bureau recently conducted a case study regarding the issue of diversity. The count Bureau defines adversity as the all of the ways in which we differ.Among these dimensions are race, gender, age, disability, religion, sexual orientation and child/elder care responsibilities. The United States Government in acted a program within the Census Bureau in 1994 under the leadership of President Clinton, in hopes that he could build a government that looks like America. Further, he stated that motley transcends race and gender, affirmative action and Equal Employment Opportunity. It must encompa ss a fundamental appreciation of one another and a respect for some(prenominal) our similarities and our differences.It must include a heartfelt respect in attitude and in behavior towards those of different race, gender, age, sexual orientation, ethnicity and those with disabilities all the facets that make each individual the unique and precious resource that each of us is. In conclusion affirmative action is a vital part of society because it gives everyone a fair opportunity succeed regardless of race, gender, ethnicity or background. It also provides diversity in the workplace which will accurately reflects the community. . Works Cited Merritt, J. (2002, attest 10). Wanted A Campus That Looks handle America Businessweek.Businessweek Business News, Stock Market & Financial Advice. Retrieved September 4, 2012, from http//www. businessweek. com/stories/2002-03-10/wanted-a-campus-that-looks-like-america Jacobs, Roger. Disability Discrimination, Reasonable Accommodation, and the Modified Commute. 36. 4 (2011) 59-68. Print. Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) Policy Statements. (n. d. ). Census Bureau Homepage. Retrieved September 10, 2012, from http//www. census. gov/eeo/policy_statements/ Why Affirmative Action is Necessary in the Workplace Lawrence Smith James Lee Andrea WillisAffirmative ActionAn action or policy favoring those who tend to suffer from discrimination, especially in relation to employment or education affirmative action, also commonly referred to as the paradox positive discrimination. 1 Affirmative action was designed as a temporary measure to insure a leveled playing field for all Americans specifically minorities and women. The affirmative action measure was created to be a catalyst in ending racial and gender discrimination in the workplace and was to be retracted once the presumable playing field was leveled.However, through various flaws and shortcomings in the policy, it grew into a form of reverse discrimination where individ uals that were well qualified for positions were turned down in lieu of minorities. When it was created, the affirmative action policy was a necessary step in insuring equality for all, but twenty-first century America has many restrictions and guidelines to prevent employers from discriminating against someone based on their race, gender, religion and national origin, proving affirmative action to be irrelevant.The essayist chose this topic because of her interest in the diversity of Americas current workforce. After various courses in economics as well as a course on public policy she became interested in programs designed to enhance social welfare in the United States of America. Also with growing concerns of immigration and the dwindling of whites as a majority in the United States, the topic of changes in the American workforce are sure to arise. The idea of affirmative action has drawn many supporting and opposing views since President John F.Kennedy first introduced it 1961 w ith the Executive Order number 10925. The order commanded all federal contractors (the public sector) to take affirmative action to ensure that applicants are treated equally without regard to race, color, religion, sex or national origin. 2 As years went on, the progressive Civil Rights movement evolved the idea of affirmative action and called for it to encompass all public and private sectors in the United States.Affirmative action had many supporters including the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission that was created to insure equal opportunity in the workplace for all Americans. The idea of positive discrimination was rejected in the 1978 landmark court case Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, where the United States Supreme Court ruled that race could not be used as an admission standard to a university and disadvantaged minority students were not permitted to have admission spots reserved for them. Supporters of affirmative action believe that aiding those wh o have been historically disadvantage will insure the end of the cycle of poverty and call for a justified wealth distribution throughout the United States. It is statically proven that on average, minorities are less wealthy than whites.4 Statistics also prove that individuals in low-income households are less likely to receive a college education therefore making them unqualified for most jobs in Americas current workforce. This cycle continues as these unqualified workers who were not able to get high paying jobs have children who are subsequently born into low-income households. In order for this cycle to discontinue, a policy should be put in place that will provide them an advantage over the wealthy white job seekers the affirmative action policy provides this advantage. Sacrificing the well being of white males for a short period of time in order to catapult minorities and women into becoming qualified employees is a belief that many supporters of affirmative action hope for. Although the affirmative action policy was meant to be a temporary aid, a decade after it was created it morphed into a hypocritical attempt to fix a solution. College students from St. Norbert College, believe that its really justifying racism by its own actions. Its policies totally judge people solely on skin color and gender. That is discrimination in itself. 6 Those in opposition of affirmative action believe that it is not fair to discriminate against someone that has worked hard to become qualified for a job position.They believe that other programs such as scholarships and extra tutoring programs for the underprivileged are better solutions to solving inequality in the workplace. Once minorities become equally educated and acquire skills for jobs in todays workforce, they will inherently level the playing field on their own. The issue of affirmative action has acquired many praises and oppositions. From when it was enacted over fifty years ago, it has transformed into a cont roversial subject. Although this topic was more relevant during the period of the Civil Rights Movement, it has recently gained momentum with the growing minority population.Affirmative ActionAffirmative action is a practice that is intended to promote opportunities for the protected class which includes minorities, woman, and people with disabilities or any disadvantaged group for that matter. With affirmative action in place people of this protected class are given an even playing field in terms of hiring, promotion, as well as compensation. Historically, affirmative action is only known to have protected African Americans and woman however that is not the case. Affirmative action protects a variety of people and without this statute many people included in this protected class would be unfairly discriminated against.There are many reasons why affirmative action should continue to be a part of workplace such as Fosters diversity. Educates our workforce on diversity. Equips employe es to achieve their highest contribution to the mission. Challenges employees to make their maximum contribution to the mission. Encourages employees to offer differing views and suggestions toward achieving organizational goals. Respects and appreciates individual differences. Provides equitable treatment and opportunities. Creates and maintains an inclusive approach to all systems, policies, and practices (i. . , promotions, performance ratings, awards, training, assignments, and access to services). Facilitates culture change to support wider diversity. People who are opposed to affirmative action often argue that it gives an unfair advantage to any member of this protected class however that is far from the case. Affirmative action programs do not give racial preferences nor create quotas. In fact affirmative action programs are flexible therefore creating a legitimate selection process in the hiring aspect of the workplace.Although not in the workplace, an example of a flexible affirmative action program was seen at Ohio State University where they adopted the 10 percent rule. This rule admits students who are in the top 10% of their high school graduating class. Doing so allows colleges to take minorities who excel in marginal urban schools. This is a very legal way in ensuring minorities an even playing field (Campus that Looks like America). Because of the effectiveness of affirmative action other statues have been put into place to ensure that other members of this protected class are not getting discriminated against such as the Rehabilitation Act.The Rehabilitation Act of 1973, which makes it unlawful for certain employers to discriminate against a qualified individual exclusively by reason of her or his disability. The Rehabilitation Act does not specifically address medical inquiries, although it provides that the judicial standards used to determine whether an employer has unlawfully discriminated shall be the standards applied under the ADA. Thi s is merely one of many statutes that were created as a part of affirmative action to promote equal employment.Clearly, with all of the mandates that were branched off of affirmative action the need for this program in the workplace is vital. Affirmative action promotes diversity which is known to be a vital part of any companys success. Many companies even the U. S Government pride their selves on diversity and use various affirmative action programs to achieve such a company culture. For example the U. S. Census Bureau recently conducted a case study regarding the issue of diversity. The Census Bureau defines adversity as the all of the ways in which we differ.Among these dimensions are race, gender, age, disability, religion, sexual orientation and child/elder care responsibilities. The United States Government in acted a program within the Census Bureau in 1994 under the leadership of President Clinton, in hopes that he could build a government that looks like America. Further, he stated that Diversity transcends race and gender, affirmative action and Equal Employment Opportunity. It must encompass a fundamental appreciation of one another and a respect for both our similarities and our differences.It must include a heartfelt respect in attitude and in behavior towards those of different race, gender, age, sexual orientation, ethnicity and those with disabilities all the facets that make each individual the unique and precious resource that each of us is. In conclusion affirmative action is a vital part of society because it gives everyone a fair opportunity succeed regardless of race, gender, ethnicity or background. It also provides diversity in the workplace which will accurately reflects the community. . Works Cited Merritt, J. (2002, March 10). Wanted A Campus That Looks Like America Businessweek.Businessweek Business News, Stock Market & Financial Advice. Retrieved September 4, 2012, from http//www. businessweek. com/stories/2002-03-10/wanted- a-campus-that-looks-like-america Jacobs, Roger. Disability Discrimination, Reasonable Accommodation, and the Modified Commute. 36. 4 (2011) 59-68. Print. Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) Policy Statements. (n. d. ). Census Bureau Homepage. Retrieved September 10, 2012, from http//www. census. gov/eeo/policy_statements/ Why Affirmative Action is Necessary in the Workplace Lawrence Smith James Lee Andrea Willis

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Medically Assisted Suicide

Medically Assisted self-annihilation Medically assisted self-annihilation is an event in which a physician honors a patients request for a lethal dose of medication. It has become a very emotional and controversial reduce for some in the United States. The only state legally allowing medically assisted suicide is Oregon since 1997. Although some feel it is unethical and morally wrong, medically assisted suicide should be legalized to patients who are terminal figurely ill because it would relieve them from constant and unbearable physical and psychological pain in a dear and painless way.Individuals in the United States have the freedom to make finalitys concerning their life such as where they live, what they wear, who they marry, and occupation. Every individual is able to make a determination about his or her life whether good or bad. Everyone is ultimately in full control of his or her own life. By allowing somebody to make choices freely regarding their life, the same s hould be allowed when regarding their death. Some patients passively aggressively have to contain their lives by non continuing treatment or therapy for their disease.This emphasizes the theory that people pile and should control their own lives. Patients choose to abate their lives for various reasons they fear the loss of their independence, which later results in becoming a burden to their family or friends they want to infract in a dignified way, and they also fear the thought of dying alone. Society should understand why an individual wouldnt want to have to confide on a family member to take care of them.Knowing that eventually they wont be able to do even the easiest daily tasks such as showering, eating, or walking alone, does put a heavy burden on whoever would be taking care of them. It is also reasonable to understand that patients dont want to be remembered by how they were in their sick state. No one should have to go through seeing their loved one whither by to what isnt even the person they were to begin with. It would provide much relief to families and loved ones to remember the patient in a healthy and normal condition.Medically assisted suicide shouldnt be viewed as a selfish act like regular suicide, but as a dignified and painless way to end a life that would end in the near future regardless. Whether suicides are legal or not, they will occur, and it would be much better if they were brought into the open. Suffering is diametric then pain. Suffering normally encompasses physical and psychological deterioration for which there is no cure. While m any believe taking a life away in any circle is immoral, death is a compassionate way to relieve unbearable suffering.When physicians are asked to help a patient into death, they have many responsibilities that come along with that request. Among these responsibilities are providing valid information as to the terminal illness the patient is suffering, educating the patient as to what th eir final options may be, making the decision of whether or not to help the patient into death, and also if they do decide to help, providing the lethal dose of medication that will end the patients life. Medically assisted suicide became very familiar to the public in 1990 when Dr.Jack Kevorkian helped to assist his first patient to death. Dr. Kevorkian had invented a machine that consisted of three bottles that were connected to an IV. When the patients were ready to start the process of dying, they saturnine on the machine in which a sedative was administed first to make them drift off to sleep. Following the sedative was the fatal ingredient potassium chloride. fit to Kathlyn Gay, Dr. Kevorkian claimed that he had ca utilise no death he just helped with his patients last civil rights.He believes that doctors that dont help assist their patients are like the Nazi doctors during World War 2, those who used experiments on the Jewish people (50-51). Dr. Kevorkian promoteed 43 pat ients to their death. He agreed to assist patients after thoroughly interviewing each patient and realizing there werent any other alternative methods for the patient to deter suffering. It was reported that Kevorkians male patients had severe terminal illnesses that left them incapable of living, while the female patients suffered from breast cancer and other illnesses that are curable (Keenan 16).Kevorkians medical license was suspended and eventually taken away, and he stood trial for murder charges. Dr. Kevorkian was later placed in throw out and then released by Judge Richard C. Kaufman who ruled the states ban of medically assisted suicide as unconstitutional. It was determined that Dr. Kevorkians charges be brush off payable to the basis of the quality of the patients life, saying that the patients life was significantly impaired by a medical condition that was extremely unlikely to improve. Kaufman also say that people have a constitutional right to commit suicide. Wor snop, 405). According to Oregons Death with Dignity Act, Terminal disease means an incurable and irreversible disease that has been medically confirmed and will, within reasonable medical judgement, produce death within six (6) months (2). The physician is also responsible for allow the patient know of any experimental drugs and any other treatments that may benefit the patient in any way. Another responsibility of the physician is to develop the patient as to what their final options may be.They are required to inform the patient about their diagnosis, the results of taking any medication that could be given, all alternatives that could be used to treat the patient, and also having the patient contact another physician to confirm the diagnosis (The Oregon Death with Dignity Act 3, hereafter cognize as The Oregon). It should be agreed that when a patient is left with no other alternatives or methods of survival, they should be allowed to decide if they want to end their own life. Physicians who aid in a patients request for aid shouldnt be judged as immoral, but only as someone who has the means and education to help patients with their last request in life. It should also be taken into consideration that everyone has the freedom of choice. Since there is no absolute legal, medical, or moral solvent to the question of what constitutes a good or correct death in the face of a terminal illness, the power to make the decision about how someone dies can rest with only one individualthe person living in that particular body (Shavelson 153).When patients are already faced with death due to a terminal illness, medically assisted suicide should be allowed so that they dont have to go through any pain. Many terminal illnesses involve the decomposition of the brain, vital organs, and physical appearance. Patients normally tend to lose their mental activity such as memory and thinking also. It isnt carnival for a patient to have to go through that if they are not wil ling to. Not only for their mental and physical state of mind, but because of the cost. Patients shouldnt be required to pay for medical treatment that only prolongs a life with poor quality.Society also shouldnt blame a patient for not wanting to lie in a hospital bed and rely on a machine to do their breathing. That patient should be entitled to choose an easy and peaceful death. Patients who make the decision to end their life shouldnt be viewed as doing something wrong because they are choosing to do something to help them. Decisions regarding time and circumstances are personal to each individual. A competent person should be able to choose. While many view the take in preserving a life, the interest should deteriorate when the individual has a strong desire to end their life.In conclusion, medically assisted suicide should not be viewed as ethically wrong. It should be viewed as a humane and graceful way for patients with no other alternatives to die. It prevents an individua l who is terminally ill from feeling severe pain and deciding when and how they want to end their life. The suffering a patient goes through is incomprehensible to people who havent gone through it. Therefore it shouldnt be decided by anyone but the individual going through it how long and how much suffering they endure. Bibliography Gay, Kathlyn.The Right To Die Public Controversy, Private Matter. Brookfield, Connecticut The Millbrook Press, 1993. Keenan, James F. The Case for Physician-Assisted Suicide? America. November 14, 1998. 14-19. Shavelson, Lonny. A Chosen Death The Dying Confront Assisted Suicide. New York Simon and Schuster, 1995. The Oregon Death with Dignity Act. Yahoo. January 16, 2000, http//www. islandnet. com/deathnet/ergo_orlaw. html. Worsnop, Richard L. Assisted Suicide. C Q Researcher. Vol. 2, No. 7, p. 145-168. Washington D. C. congressional Quarterly, Inc. , 1992.

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Biodiversity and Wild Life

Proper utilization and management of nature and its resourcefulnesss is termed as conservation. International Union for conservation of Natural and Natural Resources (IUCN) define conservation as rational use of environment to provide a high quality of living for the mankind. Conservation is essential for life support system like air, water, land, phytology & fauna, biodiversity and ecosystems. Natural resources are conserved due to economic as their natural beauty and importance to local culture.Preserving biodiversity is essential for ecosystems to respond flexibly to damage or change. An International treaty, the convention on International Trade in be species of wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) went into effect in 1975 and out lawned trade of endangered animals and animal parts. In USA, the Endangered Species Act (ESA) was enacted in 1973. The conservation of wild life includes natural habitats, make them to reproduce and give rise to fertile number without human interference.Wil d life Protection Act 1972 declares endangered (threatened) animals are now declared as protected animals. The Indian Board of Wild life (IBW) whole caboodle in collaboration with World Wildlife Fund (WWF) to conserve wild life with the assistance of Govt. This includes implementation of Wild life Act, species preservations, predator control, Tiger reserve and home ground preservation. In India there are 400 wild life sanctuaries and more than 70 National Park for protection and preservation of wild life.Forest conservation send packing be done by preventing fires, eradicates pest, resistant varieties of plants, reduces deforestation, increase afforestation, regeneration, conservation of soil depends upon the maintenance of vegetal cover, terracing and landscape and check soil erosion. The measures like proper drainage, storage, use, cloudburst control can be taken for conservation of water. Energy conservation require the use of renewable energy resource and alternative energy resource and in household energy can be conserved by turning down thermostats, switching off unnecessary lights, insulating homes and using less luscious water.The sustainable development as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs the United Nations Environment Programme says The intensify and unsustainable demand for land, water marine and coastal resources resulting from the expansion of agriculture and uncontrolled urbanization lead to increased degradation of natural ecosystems and erode the life documentation systems that uphold human civilization.Caring for natural resources and promoting their sustainable use is an essential response of world community to ensure its own survival and well being. consider and do the eco friendly exercises in life. Related Articles Essay On The Indo-Us Nuclear Deal

Monday, May 20, 2019

Car Insurance Database

This task is related to creation and update of database which is going to operate the data of an insurance company. The database is developed in MS-Access. In order to create the database in MS-Access, the first timbre is to create the database from file menu of the MS-Access and provide any suitable name (e. g. the name chosen for this see to it is vechicle_insurance). The next step is to use the query option and execute the queries one by one (the queries be available in this document).All the queries provided in the document are compatible with MS-Access. Six tables are created by the data Definition Language (DDL) query and the data is inserted into the table by the insert query or info Modification Language (DML). In addition to DDL & DML, browse, search and update queries are also provided in this document. In the following section, Data dictionary is provided which is a mapping of the fields with the data type.The Entity-relationship (ER) diagram is provided on a separat e document which shows the relationship amongst all six table tables and how they are connected to each other. In the ER diagram, Id is primary key for each table. All the tables are normalized to 3rd form of the normalization. Data mental lexicon There are six tables in vehicle insurance database. Each table contains certain identification number of fields. Each field gives the information of related table.

Sunday, May 19, 2019

Complexity of Poetry

Allison Gilpin Dr. J wizs English 102 20 July, 2012 complexness of Poe fork over Poetry is a way for the ref to openly interpret a poem in almost any way they see fit. Because there is so much freedom of interpretation with poetry, there leaves a lot of room for discussion and opposition. Billy Collins poem, Introduction to Poetry, breaks down the raw material ways for interpreting and reason a poem. In summary, he explains that the reader tailnot focus on stressful to figure out one specific moment of a poem, but instead, try to piece to deposither small parts to understand a deeper meaning.Collins rules on how to interpret a poem end be applied to Hughess poem about a young educatee writing a poem for homework. Instead of looking at Hughess poem as a all told, the reader domiciliate better understand it by breaking it down and figuring out why each withdraw is important and how it ties together with the poem as a whole. Understanding collins rules to interpret a poem, helper the reader decipher Hughes poem on a deeper, more academic level. Langston Hughess poem explains how a black, twenty two year old man and the rest of his white classmates argon given an engagement to write a paper.The narrator, who is also the student, explains his thoughts about the assignment and how him being the only colored one in his class might be reflected on his grade on the assignment. At the beginning of the poem, he explains how he has to get to class everyday by traveling across some of the better parts of town. The student goes on to explain how even though he is colored, he likes the same things and has the same wants as everyone else. He states that he is no different than the rest of his class and that he too has knowledge to shargon.By stating this, the student is expressing to the reader how he thinks him and the instructor are equal. In the last few lines the student writes, As I assume from you, / I guess you learn from me (37-38). This explains how eve n though their skin color and age is different they are still able to learn from each other. The student has a somewhat optimistic and confident line throughout the poem. He is aware of his capabilities and knows that he can be just as successful as anyone else.Billy Collins Introduction to Poetry explains how whenever bulk analyze a poem they do not try to find the true message of it. By writing, But all they want to do / is tie the poem to a chair with rope / and torture a confession out of it, explains how the majority of people are lazy and want everything handed to them effortlessly (12-14). This last stanza explains how some people look at poems from one point of view and expect the meaning of the poem to be written out for them.The author is stating that people should look at the poem from different angles just as one would look at the adult male from a color slide. He tries to explain to the reader that if one were to interpret the poem from a whole new approach, then the y could find a deeper meaning than just the surface meaning. After reading Collins Introduction to Poetry, the reader should have a better sense of how to interpret Hughess poem. passim the first part of Hughess poem the reader whitethorn think all of the characters background culture including his address, age, and hometown is pointless.After reading an entire stanza about this pointless information the reader may try to stop understanding the poem before they even finish it. If the reader uses Collins instructions about analyzing a poem, they may find that all of this pointless information is actually important and helps contribute to the characters feelings of insecurity. Collins poem explains that not all poems have one specific root or meaning the writer is trying to get across.Keeping this idea in mind, the reader may realize that Hughess poem, in fact, does not state an answer or solution to the characters mixed feelings. Although both of these poems leave room the readers own special interpretation, there is a basic meaning and idea to each one. Both of these poems fit well together because Collins thoughts and ideas can be directly applied when reading Hughess poem. The poems are an effective example of how even though a poem may seem short and simple, there is usually a deeper and greater meaning beneath the surface.

Saturday, May 18, 2019

Euthanasia Opposite Side Essay

euthanasia is a relatively touchy subject and everyone has their own opinion on it. For me, I am pro-euthanasia and I believe that an individuals proper(ip) to autonomy and immunity of choice, euthanasia should be legalized in every(prenominal) the states. It is only fair to give aboutone that right because close is a private matter and should not be controlled by others.If a person autonomously chooses to end his or her life or have someone else assist them in doing so, it should be all(prenominal)owed. One should be gratuitous to do so as languish as no harm is done to others. Moreland goes farther and gives an seam dealing with autonomy stating Since biological life is not the real, moral issue, then life is not in and of itself valuable or sacred simply because it is human life. He goes on saying that the more measurable aspect would be biological life, which deals with autonomy (Moreland). There are many people who are stuck in infirmary beds for months, even years, wired with tubes unable to move from where they lay. They slowly die in a long painful death unable to do any social occasion, while family members clear in agony as their love one withers a course. What an undignified way to die, a slow painful death, too sad to watch. We ordure prevent this if euthanasia was in place. mercy killing can quickly and humanely end a patients paltry allowing them to die with dignity (euthanasia). Not only does this help patients die a more painless death, it as well as can help shorten the grief and suffering or the patients love ones.Illness can imply away the ability to make choices leaving people with no quality of life. Euthanasia allows that person to impart back the control in deciding whether to live or to die (White). A different way to see it is to compare it to our animals. Most people would have their pets put down if they were suffering. It would be unbearable to watch your pet slowly die, rather than having a quick death. Why cant t he same thing happen with humans? It is roughly like animals get a special treatment compared to us. The argument of compassion is when a person is allowed to terminate his or her life in an act of kindness (Moreland). Is it morally faulty to kill someone who is terminally ill? I will give you another scenario to think about. A patient has disseminated cancer, cannot move in his bed for pain, cannot eat because of nausea and has rockyy breathing because of the restrictive do of a large quantity of intra-abdominal fluid (Gillett 62). If the man is begging to be killed, would you not? The argument of tenderness would prove that this is cruel and inhumane. A quiet painless way to die from a fatal shooter is better than being in pain from an affliction, also known as the golden rule (Moreland). immunity of choice is as American as the bald eagle but yet do we all really have that type of freedom? My answer is a big no. Only iii states have euthanasia in place and they are Oregon , Washington, and Montana. But even in these three states it was almost impossible to be give for euthanasia. The requirements that had to be satisfied before a request could be granted were so steep that only 2 people a month used this to end their lives (Pro Euthanasia Arguments). Some of these conditions included patient essential be terminally ill with a life anticipation of less than six months, both doctors must confirm that the patient is capable of making this decision, both doctors must confirm that the patient does not have medical condition that impairs their judgment, and patient must self-administer the lethal medicament (Pro Euthanasia Arguments). Is regulating euthanasia impossible? I must admit it would be very difficult but it is indeed possible. Again take a look at the three states that have euthanasia. animal(prenominal) assisted suicide is usually what would happen to patients in hospitals if they cannot do it on their own. A doctor or nurse would inject the patient with a lethal dose causing them to die or some type of medication (Bourdeau). The terminally ill will get the rights they want and more control of their destiny. Euthanasia promotes the best interests of everyone concerned and violates no ones rights (Moreland).The last thing I wanted to speak about was that euthanasia does free up scarce resources in the hospital (Pro Euthanasia Arguments). Keeping loved ones alive in hospitals uses up a lot of money as well as resources the hospital has to provide. We can direct the equipment to someone else who has a better chance of living rather than a terminally ill patient who will be stuck in the hospital.Euthanasia should be morally accepted and legalized in all states because of the freedom of choice that Americans have. The pain and suffering patients go through coupled with their loved ones eyesight them in a shameful manner can all be stopped if euthanasia is passed. regulation euthanasia should not be too much of a challenge as well since we do have a few states that already have it. The scarce resources that are used to keep the terminally ill barely alive can be used to help aid others live a better lifestyle. In general euthanasia should be looked at as a right we all have considering we are fully autonomous. If one has the right to life does one not have the right to death?Works CitedBourdreau, Donald, MD. Physician-Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia. The Permanente Journal. N.p., Fall 2011. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. . Euthanasia. Rsrevision. N.p., 2011. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. . Gillett, Grant. Euthanasia, Letting Die and the Pause. JSTOR. N.p., June 1988. Web. 16 Nov. 2012. . Moreland, J. P. Euthanasia Arguments. CRI Euthanasia Arguments Comments. N.p., 17 Apr. 2009. Web. 16 Nov. 2012. . Pro-Euthanasia Arguments. BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. . Smith, Candance. Physician-Assisted Suicide A Topic of Growing Importance. The Society Pages. N.p., 31 July 2012. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. . White, Hilary. British Me dical Journal Campaigns for Legalized Euthanasia. LifeSiteNews. N.p., 18 June 2012. Web. 16 Nov. 2012. .

Friday, May 17, 2019

Literature Review on Domestic Violence

What Makes a Person Violent Literature Review Since the beginning of the man race, domestic effect has been present. However, it was not until recent centuries that people began to look at it as a crime. To umpteen people, in umpteen cultures, domestic vehemence was seen as not only acceptable, barely necessary in some situations. In a orbit conducted by Hines and Saudino (2002), domestic ferocity in close, interior relationships is a country wide problem inside the United States. The last nationally conducted survey put together that an estimated 16 pct of married Americans experience domestic craze within the previous course.That means that approximately 8. 7 million couples have been affected by domestic frenzy (Hines, Saudino 2002). In hammeration also indicated that out of the couples that experienced domestic violence, 3. 4 million received severe injury. However, this is a problem that reaches far beyond our shores. This is a crisis that has plagued nations all slightly the world. Among various studies, the majority of question focuses on the social learning theory, physiological factors, and intoxicant on a persons likelihood of becoming an offender of domestic violence.Social Learning hypothesis In recent years, studies involving domestic violence have placed the spot light on the violence of being socially learned in gaga behaviors. Within the criminal justice field, the domestic violence theory suggest that ill-use is a behavior that is taught and picked up from learned experiences within the persons family or federation in which they were, or atomic number 18 surrounded (Kernsmith 2006). The contain of Intergenerational transmission system has become unitary of the most prevalent theories to domestic violence (Corvo 2006).In a study done by Kernsmith (2006), a written survey was accustomed to only English-speaking people, that were patients in prevention programs end-to-end Los Angelos County , California. Amongst the fifteen centers chosen to participate, 52. 6 percent of those who responded were men and 47. 4 percent of those who responded were women. The study considered different variables including whether or not the histrion had ever witnessed or been a victim of domestic violence. The results give that about 74 percent f the participants had witnessed some form of domestic violence as a small fry. Of those, 70 percent said that they witnessed emotional abuse and 61 percent witnessed corporeal abuse. In addition to witnessing violence, 68 percent of the participants admitted to being victims of child abuse themselves. Of those, 64 percent reported emotional violence and 53 percent reported physical violence. Domestic violence within previous relationships was also prevalent around 60 percent reported being wrong by a previous first mate.According to the findings in Kernsmiths (2006) experiment, a high number of the participants that were examined learned their opprobrious demeanor th rough previous experience within families of domestic violence. This study also found less that 3 percent of the participants admitted to never being exposed to domestic violence, including that of emotional or physical childishness abuse. These same participants said that they had never witnessed any form of sexual violence or domestic violence within their family of origin.This study found that the impact of assault of any form as a child has a huge impact on an individual as an adult. A journal article by Hines and Saudino (2002) says that within a life cadence, on average, fifty percent of all male and female Americans will be victims of aggression from their intimate better half. They proclaim that the most popular explanation for the conveyance of domestic violence mustiness be awarded to the social learning theory. One of the most accurate theories as to why people consume to be violent in their adult years is due to their exposure to violence as a child (Hines, Saudino 2002).Hines and Saudino (2002) also mention that in the earliest studies performed to measure violence, children who were punished through the means of physical abuse were significantly more likely to continue that behavior into their own families. Weldon and Gilchrist (2012) interviewed six male perpetrators percentage prison sentences in Scotland. They asked the offenders worldwide questions about their thoughts and feelings in regards to violence. They also included questions about each offenders other(prenominal) and childhood experiences.The most common answer retortn by the perpetrators was that violence was normal to them (Weldon and Gilchrist 2012). It was something that they were used to and had seen many times. These findings however, did not only apply to intimate relationships, but rather to life in general. They exhibited violent behaviors throughout their life. Overall, studies that focus on the power of the social learning theory, have found that at that place is a absolute correlation between witnessing or being victim to abuse in childhood, and being violent towards your intimate partner in adulthood.Physiological Factors Research on domestic violence has focused on several argonas which ar believed to play a role in explaining abusive behavior. The first area discussed is a predisposition to change magnitude heart response to slight agitation. Lavinia et. al. (2010) describes a study that calculated physiology factors on a persons predisposition to aggression in intimate relationships. The study looked at physiological reactivity, which is defined as changes to a persons body brought about by a stimulus.The study found that individuals that are antisocial and violent are more likely to be predisposed to being abusive to their partner. To prove their findings, they found abusive males to interview. The males had to be seriously violent ranging from shoving to weapons. They also must have been abusive six or more times to be included i n the study. They also found an equal amount of non-violent partners to interview as well. The experiment twisting the participation of not only the males, but the participants partner as well. They experiment had the couple talk about two things in which typically provoked discourse.While the conversation was in progress, the researchers measured the both partys heart rate, pulse transmission to finger, and the amplitude of finger pulse. However, the study did not find any increase in the violent husbands compared to that of non-violent husbands. Nevertheless, the wives of the violent partner exhibited an increase in finger pulse amplitude and finger pulse transit time than that of the non-violent partners. The study suggested that, due to the increase in pulse, wives of abusive husbands experience heightened feelings of rage, sadness, worry and fear (Lavinia et. l. 2010). This study shows that research does not support that abusive partners experience heightened cardiovascular re sponse to discourse compared to that of non-violent partner. In a different study, Shorey et al. (2011) discusses how much patrimonialally predisposition to trait anger plays a role in female aggression towards their male partner. In the context of this study, trait anger is defined as the genetic predisposition to respond in anger when placed in situations involving large amounts of stress.The study found that there was indeed a correlation between women that suffered from trait anger and those that were prone to express violence towards their partner. The individuals were asked to give their information such as age, salary, ethnicity, whether or not they were married, and the length of time that they have been in their contemporary relationship. The same participants were then given a test called State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI) (Shorey et al. 2011). This was used to canvas the participants trait anger.The women were asked questions about themselves in order to s ee if they usually feel angry. The questions were answered on a scale from one to four in (one being not at all, and four being very often). The test was proven to be accurate. When examining the results, the researchers found that 58 percent of the women struggle with trait anger. This proves that Shoreys et al. (2011) prediction about the direct correlation with inherited trait anger to physical and psychological abuse was accurate. This study (Shorey 2011) serves to prove that our genetics and physiological response are involved in how we act.Some people are more prone to violence due to inherited anger. This makes it much more difficult for them to control their pickpocket to be violent towards the ones they love. This does not make committing crimes by any means acceptable, however it does give fair play enforcement something to consider when dealing with cases involving domestic violence. Each of these two studies considering the physiological ramifications on behavior have shown that there is more to the criminal than just deviance. For some, it is a part of their born instinct. inebriantIn the criminal justice field, it is universally cognize that inebriant tends to be a factor in most of the crimes that people commit. McKinney et al. (2012) mentions that there has been a concordant link between the alcohol outlet and domestic violence. One of the largest reasons for intimate partner violence is the teemingness of alcohol consumption (McKinney et al. 2012). Testa and colleagues (2011) say that men who drink heavily are at a much higher risk factor to be abusive towards their intimate partner. They say that just one partner using alcohol can significantly increase the likelihood of domestic violence.In a study (Livingston 2010) preformed in Australia, researchers found that 25 percent to 50 percent of all domestic violence cases involved the use of alcohol. This study that suggests that limiting the availability of alcohol would then reduce the am ount of domestic violence. This situation experiment incorporates a longitudinal relationship among domestic violence and the amount of alcohol that is available within specific neighborhoods. The study used 186 different postal codes from around Melbourne, Australia. This ingest represented around 85 percent of all of the Melbourne population.They examined the alcohol sales from each of those postal codes to see if there was a absolute correlation between increased sale of alcohol and an increase in domestic violence. Livingston (2010) collected the information involving domestic violence from the Victorian Police Services. The raw data was taken from the Law Enforcement Assistance chopine (LEAP). All of the data is in regards to family incidents between the years 1996-2005. One factor that must remain under(a) the spotlight is that not all cases of domestic violence were reported or responded to by the police.They performed a cross-sectional longitudinal study. The results found that there was a small, yet highly significant positive correlation between the increased sale of alcohol and an increase in domestic violence. Waller and her colleagues (2012) preformed a study that focused on effects of alcohol sales and the rate of domestic violence within a large demographic areas. This study included people involved in an intimate relationship, but not necessarily married. They hypothesized that alcohol use would be directly and indirectly correlated with domestic violence within intimate relationships.The study (Waller et al. 2012) took students from Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health which was preformed originally in 2001 to 2002. The sample consisted on 52 middle schools and 80 high schools. They used ordered sampling methods for selection. The study well-tried to get responses from all students that were originally in Wave III, however the response rate was only around 77. 4 percent. They were administered questions via laptops. The study included questions about how often they felt threatened, hit, injured, etc. n the past year by their partner. Once that information was obtained from the participants, the researchers collected the data of alcohol outlets in those individuals neighborhoods. They also measured the participants consumption of alcohol within that previous year. However, after collecting the data, the researchers found no bivariate relationship between the use of alcohol and the likelihood of domestic violence. Although there are many statistics that claim that alcohol affects the like hood of intimate partner violence, we have seen that may not always be the case.Over all, research shows that alcohol consumption increases ones risk of domestic violence, but as seen in the study conducted by Waller and her colleagues, not all studies come up with that same conclusion. References Corvo, K. (2006). Violence, separation, and going away in the families of origin of domestically violent m en. diary of Family Violence, 21(2), 117-125. doi 10. 1007/s10896-005-9011-1 Hines, D. , & Saudino, K. (2002). Intergenerational transmission of intimate partner violence A behavioral genetic perspective. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 3, 210-225. doi 10. 177/15248380020033004 Kernsmith, P. (2006). Gender differences in the impact of family of origin violence on perpetrators of domestic violence. Journal of Family Violence, 21(2), 163-171. doi 10. 1007/s10896-005-9014-y Lavinia, P. , Sullivan, E. , Rosenbaum, A. , Wyyngarden, N. , Umhau, J. , Miller, M. , & Taft, C. (2010). Biological correlates of intimate partner violence perpetration. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 15(5), 387-398. Livingston, M. (2011). A longitudinal analysis of alcohol outlet density and domestic violence. Addiction Research Report, 106, 919-925. oi 10. 1111/j. 1360-0443. 2010. 03333. x McKinney, C. , Chartier, K. , Caetano, R. , & Harris, T. (2012). Alcohol availability and neighborhood poverty and their relati onship to binge drinking and related problems among drinkers in committed relationships. Journal on Interpersonal Violence, 27(13), 2703-2727. doi 10. 1177/0886260512436396 Shorey, R. , Brasfield, H. , Jeniimarie, F. & Stuart, G. (2011). The association between impulsivity, trait anger, and the perpetration of intimate partner and general violence among women arrested for domestic violence.Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 26(13), 2681-2697. doi 10. 1177/0886260510388289 Waller, M. , Iritani, B. , Christ, S. , Clark, H. , Moracco, K. , Halpern, C. , & Flewelling, R. (2011). Relationships among alcohol outlet density, alcohol use, and intimate partner violence victimization among young women in the united states. Journal of Interpersoanl Violence, 27(10), 2062-2086. doi 10. 1177/0886260511431435 Weldon, S. , & Gilchrist, E. (2012). Implicit theories on intimate partner violence offenders. J Fam Viol, published online. doi 10. 1007/s10896-005-9014-y